Anymail is maintained by its users. Your contributions are encouraged!

The Anymail source code is on GitHub.


See AUTHORS.txt for a list of some of the people who have helped improve Anymail.

Anymail evolved from the Djrill project. Special thanks to the folks from brack3t who developed the original version of Djrill.


You can report problems or request features in Anymail’s GitHub issue tracker. (For a security-related issue that should not be disclosed publicly, instead email Anymail’s maintainers at security<at>anymail<dot>dev.)

We also have some Troubleshooting information that may be helpful.

Pull requests

Pull requests are always welcome to fix bugs and improve support for ESP and Django features.

  • Please include test cases.

  • We try to follow the Django coding style.

  • If you install pre-commit, most of the style guidelines will be handled automatically.

  • By submitting a pull request, you’re agreeing to release your changes under under the same BSD license as the rest of this project.

  • Documentation is appreciated, but not required. (Please don’t let missing or incomplete documentation keep you from contributing code.)


Anymail is tested via GitHub Actions against several combinations of Django and Python versions. Tests are run at least once a week, to check whether ESP APIs and other dependencies have changed out from under Anymail.

For local development, the recommended test command is tox -e django31-py38-all,django20-py35-all,lint, which tests a representative combination of Python and Django versions. It also runs flake8 and other code-style checkers. Some other test options are covered below, but using this tox command catches most problems, and is a good pre-pull-request check.

Most of the included tests verify that Anymail constructs the expected ESP API calls, without actually calling the ESP’s API or sending any email. So these tests don’t require API keys, but they do require mock and all ESP-specific package requirements.

To run the tests, you can:

$ python test  # (also installs test dependencies if needed)


$ pip install mock boto3  # install test dependencies
$ python

## this command can also run just a few test cases, e.g.:
$ python tests.test_mailgun_backend tests.test_mailgun_webhooks

Or to test against multiple versions of Python and Django all at once, use tox. You’ll need some version of Python 3 available. (If your system doesn’t come with that, pyenv is a helpful way to install and manage multiple Python versions.)

$ pip install tox  # (if you haven't already)
$ tox -e django31-py38-all,django20-py35-all,lint  # test recommended environments

## you can also run just some test cases, e.g.:
$ tox -e django31-py38-all,django20-py35-all tests.test_mailgun_backend tests.test_utils

## to test more Python/Django versions:
$ tox --parallel auto  # ALL 20+ envs! (in parallel if possible)
$ tox --skip-missing-interpreters  # if some Python versions aren't installed

In addition to the mocked tests, Anymail has integration tests which do call live ESP APIs. These tests are normally skipped; to run them, set environment variables with the necessary API keys or other settings. For example:

$ export ANYMAIL_TEST_MAILGUN_API_KEY='your-Mailgun-API-key'
$ export ANYMAIL_TEST_MAILGUN_DOMAIN=''  # sending domain for that API key
$ tox -e django31-py38-all tests.test_mailgun_integration

Check the * files in the tests source to see which variables are required for each ESP. Depending on the supported features, the integration tests for a particular ESP send around 5-15 individual messages. For ESPs that don’t offer a sandbox, these will be real sends charged to your account (again, see the notes in each test case). Be sure to specify a particular testenv with tox’s -e option, or tox may repeat the tests for all 20+ supported combinations of Python and Django, sending hundreds of messages.


As noted above, Anymail welcomes pull requests with missing or incomplete documentation. (Code without docs is better than no contribution at all.) But documentation—even needing edits—is always appreciated, as are pull requests simply to improve the docs themselves.

Like many Python packages, Anymail’s docs use Sphinx. If you’ve never worked with Sphinx or reStructuredText, Django’s Writing Documentation can get you started.

It’s easiest to build Anymail’s docs using tox:

$ pip install tox  # (if you haven't already)
$ tox -e docs  # build the docs using Sphinx

You can run Python’s simple HTTP server to view them:

$ (cd .tox/docs/_html; python3 -m http.server 8123 --bind

… and then open http://localhost:8123/ in a browser. Leave the server running, and just re-run the tox command and refresh your browser as you make changes.

If you’ve edited the main README.rst, you can preview an approximation of what will end up on PyPI at http://localhost:8123/readme.html.

Anymail’s Sphinx conf sets up a few enhancements you can use in the docs:

  • Loads intersphinx mappings for Python 3, Django (stable), and Requests. Docs can refer to things like :ref:`django:topics-testing-email` or :class:`django.core.mail.EmailMessage`.

  • Supports much of Django’s added markup, notably :setting: for documenting or referencing Django and Anymail settings.

  • Allows linking to Python packages with :pypi:`package-name` (via extlinks).